CODEINE ADDICTION & TREATMENT
Codeine is an opioid that is available on its own as well as in combination with other substances. Although rap, hip-hop and social media may glamorize codeine, this substance is a dangerous drug that can lead to abuse, addiction and overdose. Fortunately, treatment is available to help you overcome a codeine addiction.
What is Codeine?
Codeine is an opioid that is available on its own in tablet form. It is FDA-approved for pain and is a Schedule II controlled substance, meaning that it has a high risk of abuse, dependence and addiction. However, codeine is commonly prescribed as a combination agent with other drugs. These include:
This combination is a capsule and Schedule III drug that is FDA-approved for headaches. The drug is sold under the brand names Ascomp-Codeine and Fiorinal/Codeine #3.
This drug is a capsule and Schedule III drug that is FDA-approved for headaches. It is sold under the brand name Fioricet/Codeine.
This combination is a tablet and Schedule III drug that is FDA-approved for musculoskeletal pain.
This drug comes as a liquid and is a Schedule V drug that is FDA-approved for cough. It is sold under a variety of brand names that include Coditussin AC and Guaiatussin AC.
This combination is sold as a liquid and is a Schedule V drug that is FDA-approved for cough.
Codeine is also known by a variety of street names, many of which reference its liquid formulations:
- Captain Cody
- Purple Drank With glutethimide
- Doors & Fours
- Pancakes and Syrup
Codeine Abuse in Pop Culture
Pop culture has often glamorized codeine use, with street names for the drugs often appearing in rap and hip-hop songs. This trend has increased since 2014 when the DEA made promethazine/codeine combination drug a controlled substance. This trend has increased since 2014 when the promethazine/codeine combination drug was made a controlled substance. Songs talk about using codeine products during sex, while driving, as a replacement for alcohol, and mixed with other drinks and substances to get high. One study also showed that some Instagram posts glamorize codeine, making researchers worry that codeine abuse is becoming normalized despite its potential for dependence and fatal overdose.
Codeine Use Side Effects
Codeine side effects are similar to those of other opioids and include:
- Lightheadedness or dizziness
- Shortness of breath
- Nausea and vomiting
Over the long term, opioids like codeine are linked to hormonal abnormalities which can cause problems like:
- Low sex drive
- Erectile dysfunction
- Menstrual irregularities
Because codeine is often combined with various other medications, different side effects can be linked to a codeine-containing product, even if the side effect is not from codeine itself. For example, codeine with promethazine and phenylephrine can cause high blood pressure, a side effect not typically associated with codeine but a common side effect of phenylephrine.
Signs of Codeine Abuse
When a person is beginning to abuse a medication like codeine, signs start to show up. Some warning signs of codeine abuse include:
- Changes in pupil size
- Different eating habits
- Changes to a person’s sleep schedule
- Runny nose
- Relationship problems
- Missing deadlines
- Avoiding responsibilities
- Showing financial strain
- Having legal problems
- Changes in friends or hobbies
- Personality and mood changes
Signs of Codeine Overdose
Codeine is an opioid, and opioid overdose is unfortunately common. In 2019 alone, the opioid reversal agent naloxone, sold under the brand name Narcan, was used more than 14,000 times in New Jersey. Codeine overdose has similar symptoms to other opioid overdoses. These include:
- Extreme sleepiness
- Slow or shallow breathing
A codeine overdose is a medical emergency. If you have naloxone available, you should give it right away and seek emergency medical attention. Even if the person begins to rouse, it is important to seek medical help because naloxone can wear off within 30 minutes, putting the person at risk of going back into an overdose.
Some people may be more prone to codeine overdose than others based on genetic differences. People with certain subtypes of a chemical in the body called CYP2D6 may break down codeine too quickly into its active component morphine, increasing the risk of overdose.
People at higher risk include those from certain racial or ethnic groups such as:
- Northern African
- Middle Eastern
- Ashkenazi Jewish
- Puerto Rican
Some combination products that contain codeine have other ingredients that can cause an overdose on their own. For example, codeine products that contain acetaminophen can cause acetaminophen overdose if too much is taken. Symptoms like appetite loss, nausea, vomiting, sweating, pale skin and general malaise can occur due to acetaminophen toxicity in these cases. Acetaminophen overdose is a medical emergency as it can cause liver damage. Naloxone will not reverse an acetaminophen overdose.
Withdrawal from Codeine
If you take codeine regularly, experts recommend against stopping codeine cold turkey because of the risk of withdrawal symptoms. Withdrawal symptoms may start anywhere from 8 to 24 hours after you stop codeine and can last up to 10 days. Symptoms can include:
- Nausea or vomiting
- Trouble sleeping
- Hot or cold flushes
- Muscle cramps
- Runny eyes and nose
Codeine Detox Process
Because codeine withdrawal and abstinence can be difficult and uncomfortable, it is important to slowly taper off codeine. Sometimes, doctors may consider medication-assisted treatment, or MAT, with methadone or buprenorphine. These strategies can help you stop taking codeine while reducing the risk of withdrawal symptoms. A drug detox program can wean you off codeine while under medical supervision to stop taking the drug in the most comfortable way possible. This is especially important if you take codeine with other substances like alcohol, which may complicate withdrawal.
Codeine Treatment Options
Depending on the severity of your struggle with codeine, The Recovery Village Cherry Hill at Cooper has options to help you stop taking the drug. These include:
- Medical Detox: Our inpatient detox center has a specially trained health care team that can help to comfortably wean you off codeine.
- Medically-Assisted Detox: While you undergo codeine detox, our medical team can discuss options including medication-assisted treatment, or MAT, with methadone or buprenorphine to keep you away from codeine long-term.
- Residential Rehab: After medical detox, the rest of the recovery process can begin. Once your body is free from codeine, inpatient therapy helps you learn ways to live life without codeine and explore why you became reliant on the drug in the first place.
- Outpatient Rehab: Outpatient rehab typically follows inpatient rehab and can coach you on the skills you need as you begin to enter your new life without codeine. Teletherapy may also be available.
- Aftercare: After rehab is complete, the lifelong process of aftercare begins. Aftercare sets you up for continued success with support groups and relapse prevention training.
- Dual Diagnosis: People who struggle with codeine sometimes have underlying mental health issues like depression or anxiety. Our dual diagnosis program addresses both your codeine addiction and underlying mental health problem that may have exacerbated your codeine struggle.
Codeine by itself is a Schedule II drug. However, codeine is also available in combination with other drugs and can be scheduled differently as a result.
Codeine is an opiate drug that is chemically related to morphine. Codeine breaks down into morphine inside the body.
Codeine is a controlled substance, so it is a prescription-only drug. It is not available over the counter.
The amount of codeine that a person can safely take varies based on multiple factors. These include the person’s physiology, their genetic ability to break down codeine and morphine, their kidney function, and if their body is used to codeine or other opioids. A common initial dose for codeine when taken alone is 15 mg every 4 hours as needed.
Get Help for Codeine Addiction
U.S. National Library of Medicine. “Codeine.” November 1, 2019. Accessed September 21, 2020.
U.S. National Library of Medicine. “Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsule.” June 24, 2020. Accessed September 21, 2020.
U.S. National Library of Medicine. “Acetaminophen and Codeine Tablet.” May 6, 2019. Accessed September 21, 2020.
U.S. National Library of Medicine. “Acetaminophen and Codeine Phosphate Solution.” February 5, 2020. Accessed September 21, 2020.
U.S. National Library of Medicine. “ASCOMP with Codeine.” August 20, 2020. Accessed September 21, 2020.
U.S. National Library of Medicine. “Codeine Guaifenesin.” January 10, 2020. Accessed September 21, 2020.
U.S. National Library of Medicine. “Carisoprodol, Aspirin and Codeine Phosphate Tablet.” September 10, 2019. Accessed September 21, 2020.
U.S. National Library of Medicine. “Promethazine, Phenylephrine, Codeine Syrup.” May 31, 2018. Accessed September 21, 2020.
U.S. National Library of Medicine. “Promethazine and Codeine.” May 18, 2018. Accessed September 21, 2020.
National Institutes of Health. “Street & Commercial Names.” January 17, 2018. Accessed September 21, 2020.
Tettey, Naa-Solo; Siddiqui, Khizar; Llamoca, Hasmin; et al. “Purple Drank, Sizurp, and Lean: Hip-Hop Music and Codeine Use, A Call to Action for Public Health Educators.” International Journal of Psychological Studies, February 26, 2020. Accessed September 21, 2020.
Roberts, Emilee; Byars, Kara. “Codeine References in Rap Music Increase after Codeine Availability Decreases.” April 2019. Accessed September 21, 2020.
Cherian, Roy; Westbrook, Marisa; Ramo, Danielle; et al. “Representations of Codeine Misuse on Instagram: Content Analysis.” JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, January-March 2018. Accessed September 21, 2020.
VanValkinburgh, Danny; Kerndt, Connor C; Hashmi, Muhammad F. “Inotropes and Vasopressors.” StatPearls, June 9, 2020. Accessed September 21, 2020.
Indian Health Service. “Warning Signs of Substance and Alcohol Use Disorder.” Accessed September 20, 2020.
Anne Arundel County Department of Health. “Naloxone: Frequently Asked Questions.” September 9, 2019. Accessed September 20, 2020.
World Health Organization. “Clinical Guidelines for Withdrawal Management and Treatment of Drug Dependence in Closed Settings.” 2009. Accessed September 20, 2020.
Gryczynski, Jan; Schwartz, Robert P; Mitchell, Shannon D; et al. “Hair Drug Testing Results and Self-reported Drug Use among Primary Care Patients with Moderate-risk Illicit Drug Use.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, May 17, 2014. Accessed September 20, 2020.
ARUP Laboratories. “Drug Plasma Half-Life and Urine Detection Window.” January 2019. Accessed September 20, 2020.
Cansford Laboratories. “Oral Fluid (Saliva) Testing.” Accessed September 20, 2020.
New Jersey Department of Health. “Naloxone (Narcan) Incidents, June 2017 – July 2020.” Accessed September 20, 2020.
Medical Disclaimer: The Recovery Village aims to improve the quality of life for people struggling with a substance use or mental health disorder with fact-based content about the nature of behavioral health conditions, treatment options and their related outcomes. We publish material that is researched, cited, edited and reviewed by licensed medical professionals. The information we provide is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. It should not be used in place of the advice of your physician or other qualified healthcare provider.